HEPPA-MMI and SOLARIS joint goals have been defined at the IUGG meeting held in Melbourne in July 2011: 


  • What is the characteristic of the observed solar climate signal? (radiative and particle-induced)


  • What is the mechanism for solar influence on climate? (dynamical and chemical response in the middle atmosphere and its transfer down to the Earth’s surface) 


  • How do the different natural and anthropogenic forcings interact? (solar, ENSO, QBO, volcanoes, CO2)